General classification[ edit ] Clinically and pathologically, leukemia is subdivided into a variety of large groups. The first division is between its acute and chronic forms: Acute leukemia is characterized by a rapid increase in the number of immature blood cells. The crowding that results from such cells makes the bone marrow unable to produce healthy blood cells.
Share Your Story There are a number of different medical approaches to the treatment of leukemia. The genetic changes or specific characteristics of the leukemia cells as determined in the laboratory can also determine the type of treatment that may be most appropriate.
Watchful waiting may be an option for some people with a chronic leukemia who do not have symptoms. This involves close monitoring of the disease so that treatment can begin when symptoms develop. Watchful waiting allows the patient to avoid or postpone the side effects of treatment.
The risk of waiting is that it may eliminate the possibility of controlling the leukemia before it worsens.
Treatments for leukemia include chemotherapy major treatment modality for leukemiaradiation therapy, biological therapytargeted therapy, and stem cell transplant. Combinations of these treatments may be used.
Surgical removal of the spleen can be a part of treatment if the spleen is enlarged. Acute leukemia needs to be treated when it is diagnosed, with the goal of inducing a remission absence of leukemia cells in the body.
After remission is achieved, therapy may be given to prevent a relapse of the leukemia. This is called consolidation or maintenance therapy.
Acute leukemias can often be cured with treatment. Chronic leukemias are unlikely to be cured with treatment, but treatments are often able to control the cancer and manage symptoms.
Some people with chronic leukemia may be candidates for stem cell transplantation, which does offer a chance for cure. Many patients opt to receive a second opinion before beginning treatment for leukemia. In most cases, there is time to receive a second opinion and consider treatment options without making the treatment less effective.
However, in rare cases of very aggressive leukemias, treatment must begin immediately. Someone should discuss with a doctor the possibility of obtaining a second opinion and any potential delays in treatment. Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the administration of drugs that kill rapidly dividing cells such as leukemia or other cancer cells.
Chemotherapy may be taken orally in pill or tablet form, or it may be delivered via a catheter or intravenous line directly into the bloodstream.
Combination chemotherapy is usually given, which involves a combination of more than one drug. The drugs are given in cycles with rest periods in between.
Sometimes, chemotherapy drugs for leukemia are delivered directly to the cerebrospinal fluid known as intrathecal chemotherapy. Intrathecal chemotherapy is given in addition to other types of chemotherapy and can be used to treat leukemia in the brain or spinal cord or, in some cases, to prevent spread of leukemia to the brain and spinal cord.
An Ommaya reservoir is a special catheter placed under the scalp for the delivery of chemotherapy medications.
This is used for children and some adult patients as a way to avoid injections into the cerebrospinal fluid. Side effects of chemotherapy depend on the particular drugs taken and the dosage or regimen. Some side effects from chemotherapy drugs include hair lossnauseavomitingmouth soresloss of appetite, tiredness, easy bruising or bleeding, and an increased chance of infection due to the destruction of white blood cells.The four most common types of leukemia are acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL, also known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia) is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also affect adults. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells.
This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells. We don't know the exact cause of most chronic myeloid leukemia, but a great deal of research is being done in this area. Learn about possible causes here. Start studying Leukemia NCLEX.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. Please choose from one of the following options. A. A temperature of F Which of the following description is most consistent with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)?
The four receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) within the family of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors (FGFRs) are critical for normal development but also play an enormous role in oncogenesis.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells. These white blood cells are not fully developed and are called blasts or leukemia cells.
Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising problems, feeling tired, fever, and an increased risk of infections.