An Essay on Education and Equality. He invented the word meritocracy to describe this principle for allocating wealth and prestige and the new society it gave rise to. In spite of being semi-fictional, the book is clearly intended to be prophetic—or, rather, a warning. As a socialist, he disapproved of equality of opportunity on the grounds that it gave the appearance of fairness to the massive inequalities created by capitalism.
History[ edit ] Over the course of the past few years, the prevalence of bilinguals in the United States has increased dramatically. Before the s, research on bilingual individuals was varied. The general opinion was that bilinguals would have smaller vocabularies, stunted cognitive abilities and that children learning two languages from a young age would be spending too much of their energy differentiating and building the two languages to become competent in either one.
They employed unstandardized and subjective definitions of bilingualism and of a bilingual individual e. They also did not control for socioeconomic status SES and many of them administered verbal-intelligence tests to non-proficient speakers of a second language in that second language.
In their study they carefully matched bilingual to monolingual participants, and they found that the bilinguals showed significant advantages over the monolinguals in both verbal and non-verbal tests, especially in non-verbal tests that required more mental flexibility.
Executive functions[ edit ] Executive function is the domain of high-level cognitive processes that assists in goal-oriented tasks, such as problem solving, mental flexibility, attentional control, inhibitory control, and task switching.
Much of the current research about cognitive effects of bilingualism investigates a potential correlation between bilingualism and enhanced executive function.
Results support that bilinguals show better executive control than monolinguals when matched in age and other background factors e. Inhibitory processes of adults who learned a second language at a young age show better controlled processing than monolingual adults,  which has been linked to slowing age-related cognitive decline such as dementia.
In many studies bilingual groups outperformed monolingual control groups in executive function tasks. These findings suggest bilingualism is correlated with better control of attention and facilitates processing and functioning in several cognitive tasks.
There are two types of processing that aid children in language development: In one study,  researchers administered a non-linguistic card-sorting task to participants that required flexibility in problem solving, inhibiting irrelevant information, as well as recognizing the constancy of certain variables in the face of changes in the rules.
Bilingual children significantly outperformed their monolingual peers in this task, suggesting early development of inhibitory function that aids solving problems which require the ability to selectively focus attention. In a following study, researchers  aimed to determine what gave bilinguals an advantage in solving the card-sorting task and generally an advantage in problem solving situations.
Bilinguals performed better on the task to measure conceptual inhibition; the ability to inhibit previous associations and create new mental representations of the stimulus according to task changes. Another study used three language groups: When the two groups were adjusted for age, parent income and education, and verbal scores, the bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on conflict tasks that required resolving multiple attention demands.
The lapsed bilinguals tested better than monolinguals but worse than their fluent counterparts. Others find these effects across various sociolinguistic settings such as comparison groups with bilingual children speaking a second regional and second migrant language  or bilingual children of low-income immigrant families and monolingual children of low-income non-immigrant families.
Because this task requires suppressing a source of distraction, this kind of control is then applied to other tasks.Madison Place Highlights include: GE® kitchen appliances Quality crafted custom designed flat paneled wood cabinets in kitchen with granite counters Impact resistant windows 18″ x 18″ Ceramic tile flooring in living areas on first floor Access control entry Full lawn maintenance Resort-Style Swimming Pool with .
Peer Commentary. Only Children Develop Unique Socialization Trends; However, Empirical Evidence Is Needed Purva H. Rawal Northwestern University "The Dilemma of the Only Child," by Eischens, describes the socialization pressures and effects on only born children.
by Milton Friedman Introduction, Leonard Read’s delightful story, “I, Pencil,” has become a classic, and deservedly so. I know of no other piece of literature that so succinctly, persuasively, and effectively illustrates the meaning of both Adam Smith’s invisible hand—the possibility of cooperation without coercion—and Friedrich Hayek’s emphasis on the importance of dispersed.
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