Circumcision in boys Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the foreskin.
Circumcision being performed in central Asia probably Turkestanc. The origin of male circumcision is not known with certainty. Removing the foreskin can prevent or treat a medical condition known as phimosis. It has been suggested that the custom of circumcision gave advantages to tribes that practiced it and thus led to its spread.
Thus, men who display this signal of sexual obedience may gain social benefits if married men are selected to offer social trust and investment preferentially to peers who are less threatening to their paternity. Africa[ edit ] "The distribution of circumcision and initiation rites throughout Africa, and the frequent resemblance between details of ceremonial procedure in areas thousands An introduction to circumcision in little boys miles apart, indicate that the circumcision ritual has an old tradition behind it and in its present form is the result of a long process of development.
In the historic period, the Niger—Congo speaking peoples predominantly have and have had male circumcision that occurred in young warrior initiation schools, the schools of Senegal and Gambia being not so very different from those of the Kenyan Gikuyu and South African Zulu.
Their common ancestor was a horticultural group five, perhaps seven, thousand years ago from an area of the Cross River in modern Nigeria. From that area a horticultural frontier moved outward into West Africa and the Congo Basin.
Some peoples in East Africa do not practice male circumcision for example the Luo of western Kenya. The circumcision ceremony was very public, and required a display of courage under the knife in order to maintain the honor and prestige of the young man and his family.
The only form of anesthesia was a bath in the cold morning waters of a river, which tended to numb the senses to a minor degree. The youths being circumcised were required to maintain a stoic expression and not to flinch from the pain.
The graduants became a fraternity that served together, and continued to have mutual obligation to each other for life. In the modern context in East Africa, the physical element of male circumcision remains in the societies that have historically practiced it but without most of the other accompanying rites, context and programs.
Anesthesia is often used in such settings. There are tribes however, that do not accept this modernized practice. They insist on circumcision in a group ceremony, and a test of courage at the banks of a river.
This more traditional approach is common amongst the Meru and the Kisii tribes of Kenya. Uncircumcised men in these communities risk being "outed", and subjected to ridicule as "boys". There have been many cases of forced circumcision of men from such communities who are discovered to have escaped the ritual.
In some South African ethnic groups, circumcision has roots in several belief systems, and is performed most of the time on teenage boys: The young men in the eastern Cape belong to the Xhosa ethnic group for whom circumcision is considered part of the passage into manhood.
A law was recently introduced requiring initiation schools to be licensed and only allowing circumcisions to be performed on youths aged 18 and older. Each year thousands of young men go into the bush alone, without water, to attend initiation schools. Many do not survive the ordeal.
Eighteenth dynastyAmenhotep IIIc. Sixth Dynasty — BCE tomb artwork in Egypt has been thought to be the oldest documentary evidence of circumcision, the most ancient depiction being a bas-relief from the necropolis at Saqqara c.
He mentions that the alteration of the body and ritual of circumcision were supposed to give access to ancient mysteries reserved solely for the initiated.
See also Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis 1. The Egyptian Book of the Deadfor example, tells of the sun god Ra cutting himself, the blood creating two minor guardian deities.
It is thought to have been more popular among the upper echelons of the society, although it was not universal and those lower down the social order are known to have had the procedure done. Depiction of circumcision in Ancient Egypt. Circumcision was also adopted by some Semitic peoples living in or around Egypt.
He also reports, however, that "the Phoenicians, when they come to have commerce with the Greeks, cease to follow the Egyptians in this custom, and allow their children to remain uncircumcised.
Those who were not circumcised were to be "cut off" from their people. In Hebrew, the verb meaning to seal a covenant translates literally as "to cut". It is presumed by Jewish scholars that the removal of the foreskin symbolically represents such a sealing of the covenant.
Regensburg Pentateuch, Israel Museum, Jerusalem c. According to Hodges, ancient Greek aesthetics of the human form considered circumcision a mutilation of a previously perfectly shaped organ.
Greek artwork of the period portrayed penises as covered by the foreskin sometimes in exquisite detailexcept in the portrayal of satyrslechers, and barbarians. In Egypt, only the priestly caste retained circumcision, and by the 2nd century, the only circumcising groups in the Roman Empire were Jews, Jewish Christians, Egyptian priests, and the Nabatean Arabs.Circumcision: Guide for parents.
In Australia today circumcision of baby boys is rare, and the uncut penis is the normal thing among young people, but many parents are still anxious about the subject. Numbers "And he shall take holy water in an earthen vessel, and he shall cast a little earth of the pavement of the tabernacle into it.".
The ethics of infant male circumcision Brian D Earp INTRODUCTION Is the non-therapeutic circumcision of infections in infant boys, which can easily be treated with antibiotics without tissue the genitals of little boys, one wonders why it has failed to do so.
Male circumcision under local anaesthesia Version (Dec09) Page ii Manual for Male Circumcision under Local Anaesthesia Version December INTRODUCTION. Circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin) either in whole or in part. Religion, cultural, medical, and recently public health reasons[1,2] are known to be the major indications of the rutadeltambor.comy, it is done in neonatal period but can be performed at any age.
Circumcision: Personal stories from circumcised men Yes, it does make a difference; and men do complain. It is often said that circumcision is OK because babies are too young to remember the pain, and men don't know what they are missing, don't mind, or at least don't complain about it.