References and Further Reading 1. Introduction Hobbes is the founding father of modern political philosophy.
References and Further Reading 1. Socrates' Argument In the early Platonic dialogue, Crito, Socrates makes a compelling argument as to why he must stay in prison and accept the death penalty, rather than escape and go into exile in another Greek city.
He personifies the Laws of Athens, and, speaking in their voice, explains that he has acquired an overwhelming obligation to obey the Laws because they have made his entire way of life, and even the fact of his very existence, possible. They made it possible for his mother and father to marry, and therefore to have legitimate children, including himself.
Having been born, the city of Athens, through its laws, then required that his father care for and educate him. Socrates' life and the way in which that life has flourished in Athens are each dependent upon the Laws. Importantly, however, this relationship between citizens and the Laws of the city are not coerced.
Citizens, once they have grown up, and have seen how the city conducts itself, can choose whether to leave, taking their property with them, or stay.
Staying implies an agreement to abide by the Laws and accept the punishments that they mete out. And, having made an agreement that is itself just, Socrates asserts that he must keep to this agreement that he has made and obey the Laws, in this case, by staying and accepting the death penalty.
Importantly, the contract described by Socrates is an implicit one: In Plato's most well-known dialogue, Republic, social contract theory is represented again, although this time less favorably. In Book II, Glaucon offers a candidate for an answer to the question "what is justice?
What men would most want is to be able to commit injustices against others without the fear of reprisal, and what they most want to avoid is being treated unjustly by others without being able to do injustice in return. Justice then, he says, is the conventional result of the laws and covenants that men make in order to avoid these extremes.
Being unable to commit injustice with impunity as those who wear the ring of Gyges wouldand fearing becoming victims themselves, men decide that it is in their interests to submit themselves to the convention of justice. Socrates rejects this view, and most of the rest of the dialogue centers on showing that justice is worth having for its own sake, and that the just man is the happy man.
These views, in the Crito and the Republic, might seem at first glance inconsistent: These two views are, however, reconcilable.
From Socrates' point of view, a just man is one who will, among other things, recognize his obligation to the state by obeying its laws. The state is the morally and politically most fundamental entity, and as such deserves our highest allegiance and deepest respect.
Just men know this and act accordingly. Justice, however, is more than simply obeying laws in exchange for others obeying them as well. Justice is the state of a well-regulated soul, and so the just man will also necessarily be the happy man. So, justice is more than the simple reciprocal obedience to law, as Glaucon suggests, but it does nonetheless include obedience to the state and the laws that sustain it.
So in the end, although Plato is perhaps the first philosopher to offer a representation of the argument at the heart of social contract theory, Socrates ultimately rejects the idea that social contract is the original source of justice.
Modern Social Contract Theory a. Thomas Hobbes Thomas Hobbes, lived during the most crucial period of early modern England's history: To describe this conflict in the most general of terms, it was a clash between the King and his supporters, the Monarchists, who preferred the traditional authority of a monarch, and the Parliamentarians, most notably led by Oliver Cromwell, who demanded more power for the quasi-democratic institution of Parliament.
Hobbes represents a compromise between these two factions. On the one hand he rejects the theory of the Divine Right of Kings, which is most eloquently expressed by Robert Filmer in his Patriarcha or the Natural Power of Kings, although it would be left to John Locke to refute Filmer directly.
According to this view, then, political obligation is subsumed under religious obligation. On the other hand, Hobbes also rejects the early democratic view, taken up by the Parliamentarians, that power ought to be shared between Parliament and the King.
In rejecting both these views, Hobbes occupies the ground of one who is both radical and conservative.Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Using Enlightenment Philosophy to Teach Civil Rights and Civil Liberties by Justin Boucher Introduction.
This unit seeks to compare the work of Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) to that of John Locke (Two Treatises on Government) with regards to their views on civil liberties, the role of government, and the extent to which their background in the English Civil War. Pope Benedict XIV respected Montesquieu, but various bishops did not, and they placed on the Church's index of forbidden books Montesquieu's The Spirit of Laws, published in But independence of thought prevailed and the book was a success, going into 22 editions.
• Skit or debate accurately incorporates the perspectives held by Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Montesquieu, focusing on their views on the concept of liberty and the . Enlightenment writers include Hobbes, Locke, Diderot, Montesquieu, and Rousseau – the French writers were sometimes called the philosophes.
The leading representatives were religious skeptics, political reformers, cultural critics, historians and social theorists (Zeitlin, p.
1). Enlightenment Philosophers Revised Locke Resource Card John Locke was a British philosopher who lived from In Locke published one of his more famous books, The Second Treatise of Civil Government.
In Hobbes' view, being "civilized" is good and being a "savage" is bad. Contrast that view with the view of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (–) the Enlightenment philosopher whose book The Social Contract influenced the French Revolution: "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.".