Necker was a curious choice for such an important office.
He was a self-made financier, who amassed a private fortune mainly by speculating on the price of grain and through loans made to the royal treasury. Consequently, he acquired early in his career the reputation of a financial genius. Due to his direct involvement in the events leading up to the French Revolution and to his strong opposition to the physiocratic doctrines held by many influential politicians of his time, he is considered one of the most important figures in pre-revolutionary France.
As a student, Necker was precocious and had a predilection for literature. After completing his studies, he was sent to Paris to work as a clerk for the bank of Isaac Vernet. The subject of much controversy, the salon was thought by some observers to be no more than a means of advancing the career of an ambitious husband with political aspirations.
As her biographers point out, however, Suzanne Necker had received an unusual education for a young woman of that time and had also been an active participant in the literary How did neckers compte rendu 1781 philosophical societies of Lausanne.
The salon was perhaps established as a way of adhering to the principle of self-instruction based on reading, writing and conversation that she had followed since her youth.
InMadame Necker founded the charity hospital in Paris that still bears her name and she was directly involved in its management. In his recommendations, Necker emphasized the need for the company not only to maintain its exclusive trade privileges in the East, but also to aim for commercial autonomy by freeing itself from government administration.
It is through his involvement with the company, nonetheless, that Necker became known to the public and inhe was appointed minister to the Court of Versailles by the Genevan government.
InNecker retired from active direction of his bank in order to pursue a career in the government. Shortly afterwards, he published two works that placed him directly in the public eye. Stressing the value of practical experience rather that theory, Necker underlines the need to maintain limited government intervention in the economic sphere in order to protect consumers from grain speculators.
InJacques Necker was appointed counselor of finance and director of the royal treasury by Louis XVI and in he was promoted director general of finance.
This came at a time when France was preparing to enter the American War and the government was facing a serious financial crisis.
Convinced that the tax burden on the people had reached its peak, Necker secured a number of significant loans for the government, thereby avoiding increasing taxation.
He believed that the direction of national finances was a public matter, and therefore, for the first time in French history, published an account of annual revenues and expenditures in his famous Compte rendu In an attempt to gain public trust, he claims in this work to have brought the budget deficit under control, but in reality the French debt had drastically increased.
In Augusthe was recalled to serve as minister of state to cope with the desperate financial circumstances that ultimately forced the king to convoke the Estates General. Necker was in favor of doubling the voting power of the Third Estate representing peasants, working people of the cities and the middle classes in the proposed restructuring of the Estates General.
Recognizing that the revolution was inevitable, Necker envisaged a constitutional monarchy in which a bicameral parliament would exercise complete legislative powers and the royal government would be given full executive power. He believed, too, that there should be a bill of rights guaranteeing basic liberties to all citizens and that it was imperative to establish a responsible financial administration.
According to Necker, these measures would provide the context for peaceful reform. His dismissal on July 11, fuelled the discontentment that led to the July upraising in Paris, ending in the fall of the Bastille.
The king was thus forced to recall him for a third time. Necker engaged in new money borrowing and also proposed a general tax to be paid by all. The National Assembly no longer supported him and he was forced to resign in Necker has often been portrayed in historical studies as an able administrator but a somewhat inept political leader.
In terms of his economic thought, he has been traditionally classified as a reactionary mercantilist who was very publicly opposed to Turgot and the physiocrats. Furthermore, biographers have sometimes painted him as a dishonest businessman and an ambitious politician seeking only power and popularity.
Recent scholarship has shown that this unflattering portrait of the reform statesman is unsupported by evidence. Necker seems rather to have been the victim of a powerful libel campaign begun by his political enemies around He is now seen as a politician genuinely concerned with the welfare of the working classes and a partisan of moderate but efficient reforms in the financial administration.
He has emerged as a pragmatic thinker whose economic views place him halfway between mercantilism and liberalism, and as a supporter an English-style constitutional monarchy. His religious beliefs as well as his political, social and economic principles were clearly exposed in numerous works published during his lifetime.
An edition of his complete works in fifteen volumes, edited by his grandson, appeared from to Goldsmith and Dena Goodman, eds. Women and Publishing in Early Modern France, Necker and the Revolution ofNecker, Jacques (): French-Swiss, for the first time in French history, published an account of annual revenues and expenditures in his famous Compte rendu ().
In an attempt to gain public trust, he claims in this work to have brought the budget deficit under control, but in reality the French debt had drastically increased.
In trying to raise the necessary loans, Necker published in his celebrated Compte rendu au Roi (“Report to the King”), claiming a surplus of 10,, livres .
Compte rendu au roi - Janvier PDF. Here is the English translation Report to the King. Author.
Jacques Necker. Language. French. Credits. University of Toronto / rutadeltambor.com Related Links About the French Revolution About the Assembly of Notables in Timeline of the French Revolution.
Essays, How did Necker's?Compte Rendu' () lead to the revolutionary situation in ? Term Papers, How did Necker's?Compte Rendu' () lead to the revolutionary situation in ?
Research Paper, Book Reports. ESSAYS, term and research papers available for UNLIMITED access. The Compte rendu (full name Compte rendu au roi, translated as "report to the king") was a document published in February by Jacques Necker, finance minister to the King, in which he presented the state of France's finances.
Content of the report.
In January Necker responded to these criticisms by publishing Le Compte Rendu au Roi (‘The Record of Accounts for the King’). For the first time in France’s history, the general public was given a full and frank account of the nation’s finances. Jacques Necker >The French financier and statesman Jacques Necker () served King >Louis XVI  as director general of finances. His efforts to reform French >institutions prior to and to compromise with the Estates General after >the start of the Revolution failed. In he published his Compte rendu, which stated that the. Neckers Compte Rendu. Assembly of Notables reject Callones reforms. Paris Parlement exiled, bad harvests and bankruptcy. January `What is the third estate?` published. May 5th Estates General opens. June 17th
The. Neckers Compte Rendu. Assembly of Notables reject Callones reforms. Paris Parlement exiled, bad harvests and bankruptcy. January `What is the third estate?` published. May 5th Estates General opens.