Techniques for Assessing Course-Related Knowledge and Skills Assessing Prior Knowledge, Recall, and Understanding Background Knowledge Probe - Short, simple questionnaires prepared by instructors for use at the beginning of a course, at the start of a new unit or lesson, or prior to introducing an important new topic. Used to help teachers determine the most effective starting point for a given lesson and the most appropriate level at which to begin new instruction.
Introduction Instructional scaffolding is regarded as the impinged outcome of the converging impact of both the school of thoughts the learning theories and assessment techniques that suit best its instructional design. The two major school of thoughts that influence teachers in their instructional scaffolding techniques are the behaviorists and cognitivists.
The behaviorists look bests at regular self-testing and formative feedback. On the other hand, the cognitivists look at graded questions in taking assessment in attaining higher order thinking skills.
Hence, learning theories are bases for assessment Teaching theories and assessment instructional scaffolding. Relating assessment and instructional scaffolding requires a keen understanding of the underpinning learning theories.
Assessment and instructional scaffolding are the basic strategies of the teacher in moving forward to the attainment of a learning outcome. Concomitantly, this strategy develops evaluative expertise among students so they could become proficient at monitoring their own learning.
This kind of interactive technique fosters intrinsic motivation as well as cognitive and metacognitive learning [ 1 ].
The evolving new American-European educational model, from content to learner centered curriculum, has led academic communities to evaluate drawbacks of student outcomes to instructional scaffolding. Qualitative evaluation of outcomes through auspicious researches shows that learning theories provide a profound coherence and understanding in changing teaching practices and standards.
Concomitantly, it provides dogmatic bases in fitting together research-based strategies into a pedagogical approach [ 12 ]. Innovations to educational approaches underpins both critical thinking and creativity as the classroom must be the avenue in inviting students to come across learning towards optimal educational learning experiences.
The propagation of creativity and critical thinking is seen at the forefront of any activity and experience in the dynamic learning environment through knowledge-activation technique. Instructional scaffolding techniques strengthen knowledge-activation abilities of the learners through feed-forward mechanisms of learning feedbacks.
This technique may be done through feedbacks from inner-rater, inter-rater, intra-rater and criterion-rater. Using the KWL technique [ 2 ], students are tasked to draw learning through instructional scaffolding.
Students are able to discern learning from himself, from his groupmates, from his classmates and from his teacher. Albeit unreliable as numerous researches reveal, peer-assessment poses a potential avenue for mutual learning through feedbacks and reflections.
Effective feedback plays an important role in instructional scaffolding that result into learning gains. Thus, learning is shared and constructed in a collegial environment.
From this analysis Sadler [ 1 ] made an important observation: For this reason, teachers must focus on the strategies instructional scaffolding to strengthen the development of skills, e. This learning is reinforced as the inter-and-intra-raters feed their observations. At times, inter-and-intra-raters offer unfavorable learning feedbacks especially if the class is a big class under high competition.
Albeit difficult, the teacher criterion-rateras facilitator of student-learning, plays a critical role in order to reap and reduce the drawbacks of the contrasting learning feedbacks drawn by the students.
Hence, an analysis on the implications of learning theories to peer assessment and instructional scaffolding. The objective of this paper is to provide understanding on the influences of learning theories to assessment for learning and instructional scaffolding as influenced by the change of educational mandate — from traditional model to the evolving American-European education model.
Methodology This study used a case study under the symbolic interpretative paradigm. Results and Discussion 3. Student-learners are engaged in three important cognitive processes — selecting, organizing and integrating [ 4 ]. At first, the student-learners select incoming verbal information to yield a text base and are applied to incoming visual information to yield an image base.
These text based and image based information are organized to create a verbally-based model of the to-be explained system and is applied to the image base to create a visually-based model of the to-be-explained system. As a final point, integration occurs when the learner builds connections between corresponding events or states or parts in the verbally-based model and the visually-based model [ 5 ].
He further said that metacognition leads to selection, evaluation, revision or deletion of cognitive tasks, goals, and strategies.Firstly I am to give a synopsis of the key theories of coaching and diagnosis that I use everyday in my work as a teacher.
My teaching requires a variety of learners from E2e students () and people (19+), therefore i use a large variety of different (sometimes contradictory) methods.
APPROACHES TO TEACHING, LEARNING AND ASSESSMENT AND THE SUBJECT AREA COMPETENCES NURSING Good teaching means that Faculty, as . Traditionally, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers.
However, in constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product.
Learning theories and models summaries explained & easy to understand. Useful for students and teachers in educational psychology, instructional design, digital media and learning.
Assumptions of Classroom Assessment. Assumption ONE. The quality of student learning is directly, although not exclusively, related to the quality of teaching.
Therefore, one of the most promising ways to improve learning is to improve teaching. as well as on their understanding of theories, controversies, and the opinions of others. Abstract. Learning theories, which provide a profound coherence and understanding in changing teaching practices and standards, are imperative to the choice and employment of assessment and instructional scaffolding techniques.